The year 2002 marked the return of the multiparty elections in Somaliland. It comes after two decades of authoritarian rule in what some refer as the primary cause of the failed Union. Then followed by a short term of traditional governance through a national charter signed between the clans before a constitution was drafted and ratified by a referendum in 2001. Download here

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Following the November 2017 presidential elections, political parties in Somaliland have engaged a protracted political wrestling. After numerous unsuccessful rounds of negotiations, the European Union Ambassador to Somalia, Mr. Nicolas Berlanga, has brokered a political settlement between the three parties of Somaliland on the 27th of July, 2019 in Hargeisa. Download here

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The idea of civil society movements in the Somali territories and in particularly Somaliland goes back to colonial time when clubs for public orientation, education and even independence movements were formed to resist the colonial administrations. However, it was formalized after the independence and particularly during the nine years of Somalia civilian administrations between 1960-69. Civil society at the time had existed in the form of professional associations. Nevertheless, it was short-lived as the military junta took over Somalia in 1969 and imposed a total deprivation of civil liberty movements.Download here 

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